- Karel van der Toorn, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, , p. 836-837
- - -, The Babylonian Talmud, , Sanhedrin 63b
Rab Judah said in rab's name: And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth.18 What is this? A fowl.19 And the men of Cuth made Nergal:20 What is it? – A cock. And the men of Hamath made Ashima:21 What is that? – A bald buck. And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak:22 What are these?– A dog and an ass. And the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim:23 What are these? – The mule and the horse: Adrammelech meaning that it [the mule] honours its master24 [lit., 'king'] with its load;25 Anammellech meaning that the horse responds to its master in battle.26 The father of Hezekiah King of judah wished to do likewise to him [i.e., burn him in fire], but that his mother anointed him [with the blood of the] salamander.27
Rab Judah said in Rab's name: The Israelites knew that the idols were nonentities, but they engaged in idolatry only that they might openly satisfy their incestuous lusts. R. Mesharshia objected: As those who remember their children, so they longed for their altars, and their graves by the green trees etc;28 which R. Eleazar interpreted. As one who yearns for his son [so they yearned]?29 – That was after they became addicted thereto.30 Come and hear: And I will cast your carcases upon the carcases of your idols.31 It was related of Elijah the Righteous, that whilst searching for those who were languishing with hunger in Jerusalem, he once found a child faint with hunger lying upon a dungheap. On questioning him as to the family to which he belonged, he replied, 'I belong to such and such a family.' He asked: 'Are any of that family left,' and he answered, 'None, excepting myself.' Thereupon he asked: 'If I teach thee something by which thou wilt live, wilt thou learn?' He replied, 'Yes.' 'Then,' said he, 'recite every day, Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one.' But the child retorted,
18) II Kings XVII, 30. This and the following verses refer to the idols set up by the heathens with whom Sannecherib repopulated Samaria after its inhabitants were deported.
19) They worshipped the image of a fowl, called in their language Succoth-benoth.
22) Ibid. 3. (Or Nibhan. [H] = 'to bark' (instead of Nibhaz), hence taken to be a dog.]
24) Adar, Hebr. hadar [H] = 'to honour', and melech (melek) = king, master.
25) (I.e., the mule honours its master by carrying his load.]
26) 'Ana, Heb. [H] = 'to respond.'
27) A reptile believed to be engendered in fire. One who smeared himself with its blood was thought to be fire-proof. Hag. 27a.
28) Jer. XVII, 2.
29) This shows that they really believed in idols.
30) I.e., at first, it was only a pretext to satisfy their lust. But having engaged in idolatry, they were ensnared by its allurements and really believed in it.
31) Lev. XXVI, 30.
- Vertaling Bijbel, Kanttekeningen SV, , En de Avieten maakten Nibhaz en Tartak, en de Sefarvieten verbrandden hun zonen voor Adramelech en Anamelech, de goden van Sefarvaim, met vuur.
54. Anders, Nibhan.
55. Zie Lev.18:21.
Mede mogelijk dankzij