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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

γάρ, co-ordinating particle, contr. of γε ἄρα, verily then, hence, in truth, indeed, yea, then, why, and when giving a reason or explanation, for 1. explicative and epexegetic: Mt 4:18 19:12, Mk 1:16 5:42 16:4, Lk 11:30, Ro 7:1, I Co 16:5, al. 2. Conclusive, in questions, answers and exclamations: Mt 9:5 27:23, Lk 9:25 22:27, Jo 9:30, Ac 8:31 16:37 19:35, Ro 15:26, I Co 9:10, Phl 1:18 (Ellic., in l.), I Th 2:20, al. 3. Causal: Mt 1:21 2:2, 5, 6, 3:23, Mk 1:22, 9:6, Lk 1:15, 18, Jo 2:25, Ac 2:25, Ro 1:9, 11, I Co 11:5, Re 1:3, al.; giving the reason for a command or prohibition, Mt 2:20 3:9, Ro 13:11, Col 3:3, I Th 4:3, al.; where the cause is contained in an interrog. statement, Lk 22:27, Ro 3:3 4:3, I Co 10:29; καὶ γάρ, for also, Mk 10:45, Lk 6:32, I Co 5:7, al. id. as in cl. = etenim, where the καί loses its connective force (Bl., §78, 6; Kühner 3, ii, 854f.), Mk 14:70, Lk 1:66 22:37, II Co 13:4. The proper place of γάρ is after the first word in a clause, but in poets it often comes third or fourth, and so in late prose: II Co 1:19. Yet "not the number but the nature of the word after which it stands is the point to be noticed" (v. Thayer, s.v.).

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

  (γε, ἄρα), causal conjunction, used alone or with other Particles.
__I introducing the reason or cause of what precedes, for, τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη· κήδετο γ. Δαναῶν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.56, etc. ; but frequently in explanation of that which is implied in the preceding clause, πολλάων πολίων κατέλυσε κάρηνα.. τοῦ γὰρ κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον 2.118, etc.: hence,
__I.b in simple explanations, especially after a Pronoun or demonstrative adjective, ἀλλὰ τόδ᾽ αἰνὸν ἄχος κραδίην καὶ θυμὸν ἱκάνει· Ἕκτωρ γ. ποτε φήσει 8.148, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.163 ; ὃ δὲ δεινότατον.. ὁ Ζεὺς γ... Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 514; ὃ δὲ πάντων ἀδικώτατον ἔδοξε· τῶν γὰρ προγε γραμμένων ἠτίμωσε καὶ υἱούς Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Sulla” 31 ; frequently in introducing proofs or examples, μαρτύριον δέ· Δήλου γ. καθαιρομένης.. Thucydides Historicus 1.8 ; τεκμήριον δέ· οὔτε γ. Λακεδαιμόνιοι.. prev. author 2.39, compare Demosthenes Orator 20.10, etc. ; in full, τεκμήριον δὲ τούτου τόδε· αἱ μὲν γ... Herodotus Historicus 2.58 ; παράδειγμα τόδε τοῦ λόγου· ἐκ γ... Thucydides Historicus 1.2; δηλοῖ δέ μοι τόδε· πρὸ γ... prev. work 3.
__I.c to introduce a detailed description or narration already alluded to, ὅμως δὲ λεκτέα ἃ γιγνώσκω· ἔχει γ. ἡ χώρα πεδία κάλλιστα.. Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 5.6.6, etc.
__I.d in answers to questions or statements challenging assent or denial, yes,.., no,.. , οὔκουν.. ἀνάγκη ἐστ;—ἀνάγκη γ. οὖν, ἔφη, ay doubtless it is necessary, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 2.1.7, compare § 4 and 13; indicating assent, ἔχει γ. Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 268a ; ἱκανὸς γ., ἔφη, συμβαίνει γ., ἔφη, prev. author “R.” 502b, 502c,compare “Ap.” 41a, etc. ; οὔκουν δὴ τό γ᾽ εἰκός.—οὐ γ.: prev. author “Phdr.” 276c.
__I.2 by inversion, preceding the fact explained, since, as, Ἀτρεΐδη, πολλοὶ γ. τεθνᾶσιν Ἀχαιοί.. τῷ σε χρὴ πόλεμον παῦσαι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.328 ; χρόνου δὲ οὐ πολλοῦ διελθόντος (χρῆν γ. Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κακῶς) ἔλεγε πρὸς τὸν Γύγην τοιάδε, Γύγη, οὐ γ. σε δοκέω πείθεσθαι.. (ὦτα γ. τυγχάνει κτλ.), ποίει ὅκως.. Herodotus Historicus 1.8. compare 6.102, al. ; εἶεν, σὺ γ. τούτων ἐπιστήμων, τί χρὴ ποιεῖ; Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 117a ; the principal proposition is sometimes
__I.2.b blended with the causal one, τῇ δὲ κακῶς γ. ἔδεε γενέσθαι εἶπε, i.e. ἡ δέ (κακῶς γ. οἱ ἔδεε γενέσθαι) εἶπε Herodotus Historicus 9.109, compare 1.24, 4.149, 200, Thucydides Historicus 1.72, 8.30.
__I.2.c attached to the hypothet. Particle instead of being joined to the apodosis, οὐδ᾽ εἰ γ. ἦν τὸ πρᾶγμα μὴ θεήλατον, ἀκάθαρτον ὑμᾶς εἰκὸς ἦν οὕτως ἐᾶν, i.e. οὐδὲ γ. εἰ ἦν.., Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 255.
__I.2.d repeated, οὐ γ. οὖν σιγήσομαι· ἔτικτε γ... prev. author “OC” 980, compare “Ant.” 659f, 1255.
__I.3 in elliptical phrases, where that of which γάρ gives the reason is omitted, and must be supplied,
__I.3.a frequently in Trag. dialogue and Plato Philosophus , when yes or no may be supplied from the context, καὶ δῆτ᾽ ἐτόλμας τούσδ᾽ ὑπερβαίνειν νόμου;—οὐ γ. τί μοι Ζεὺς ἦν ὁ κηρύξας τάδε yes, for it was not Zeus, etc., Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 450, compare “OT” 102, etc.; καλῶς γὰρ αὐτὸς ἠγάνισαι Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 194a ; frequently in phrase ἔστι γ. οὕτω yes, for so it is, i. e. yes certainly: λέγεταί τι καινό; γένοιτο γ. ἄν τι καινότερον ἢ..; why, could there be.. ? Demosthenes Orator 4.10; with negatives, Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 262 τούτῳ γ. οὐ νικήσετε do so, yet shall ye never prevail by this means: for ἀλλὰ γ., see below 11.1.
__I.3.b to confirm or strengthen something said, οἵδ᾽ οὐκέτ᾽ εἰσί· τοῦτο γάρ σε δήξεται I say this, for it will sting thee, Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 1370 : after an Exclamation, ὦ πόποι· ἀνάριθμα γ. φέρω πήματα Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 168 (Lyric poetry), compare Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 857.
__I.3.c in conditional propositions, where the condition is omitted, else, οὐ γ. ἄν με ἔπεμπον πάλιν (i.e. εἰ μὴ ἐπίστευον) Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.6.33 ; γίνεται γ. ἡ κοινωνία συμμαχία for in that case, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1280b8.
__I.4 in abrupt questions, why, what, τίς γ. σε θεῶν ἐμοὶ ἄγγελον ἧκε; why who hath sent thee? Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 18.182; πῶς γ. νῦν.. εὕδουσ; 10.424 ; πατροκτονοῦσα γ. ξυνοικήσεις ἐμο; what, wilt thou.. ? Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 909: generally, after _interrogative_ Particles, ἦ γ. ..; what, was it.. ? Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1000, 1039, etc. ; τί γ.; quid enim? i. e. it must be so, prev. author “OC” 539, 542, 547, etc. ; τί γ. δή ποτ; Demosthenes Orator 21.44 ; also πῶς γ.; πῶς γ. ο;, see at {πῶς}.
__I.5 to strengthen a wish, with optative, κακῶς γ. ἐξόλοιο O that you might perish ! Euripides Tragicus “Cyclops” 261 ; compare αἴ, εἰ, εἴθε, πῶς.
__II joined with other Particles:
__II.1 ἀλλὰ γ. where γάρ gives the reason of a clause to be supplied between ἀλλά and itself, as ἀλλ᾽ ἐν γὰρ Τρώων πεδίῳ.. but far otherwise, for.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 15.739 ; ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἥκουσ᾽ αἵδ᾽ ἐπὶ πρᾶγος πικρόν but hush, for.., Aeschylus Tragicus “Septem contra Thebas” 861 ; ἀλλ᾽ οὐ γ. σ᾽ ἐθέλω.. but look out for.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.242; in full, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ γάρ σφιν ἐφαίνετο κέρδιον εἶναι μαίεσθαι προτέρω, τοὶ μὲν πάλιν αὖτις ἔβαινον Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.355; ἀλλ᾽, οὐ γ. ἔπειθε, διδοῖ τὸ φᾶρος Herodotus Historicus 9.109.
__II.2 γ. ἄρα for indeed, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 315d, “Smp.” 205b.
__II.3 γ. δή for of course, for you know, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.301, 23.607, Herodotus Historicus 1.34, 114, etc. ; φάμεν γ. δή yes certainly we say so, Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 187e, compare 164d; οὐ γ. δή Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 46, etc.
__II.4 γ. νυ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.359.
__II.5 γ. οὖν for indeed, to confirm or explain, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 15.232, Herodotus Historicus 5.34, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 489, 771, etc. ; φησὶ γ. οὖν yes of course he says so, Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 170a; γ. οὖν δή prev. author “Prm.” 148c, etc.; οὐ γ. οὖν prev. work 134b ; compare τοιγαροῦν.
__II.6 γ. που for I suppose, especially with negatives, prev. author “R.” 381c, “Phd.” 62d, etc.; οὐ γ. δήπου prev. author “Prt.” 309c.
__II.7 γ. ῥα, ={γὰρ ἄρα}, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.113, al.
__II.8 γ. τε, 23.156 ; also τε γ. Demosthenes Orator 19.159, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1333a2, al.
__II.9 γ. τοι for surely.., Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 93, “Supp.” 564, etc.; οὐ γ. τοι Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 21.172, etc. ; compare τοιγάρτοι.
__B POSITION: γάρ properly stands after the first word in a clause, but in Pocts it frequently stands third or fourth, when the preceding words are closely connected, as ὁ μὲν γὰρ.. Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 764 ; χἠ ναῦς γὰρ.. prev. author “Ph.” 527 ; τό τ᾽ εἰκαθεῖν γὰρ.. prev. author “Ant.” 1096 ; τὸ μὴ θέμις γὰρ.. Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 641, compare 753: also in Prose, τὸ κατ᾽ ἀξίαν γὰρ.. Aristoteles Philosophus “Ethica Nicomachea” 1163b11 : sometimes for metrical reasons, where there is no such connexion, as third (Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 222.729, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 219 (all Lyric poetry)), fourth (Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 1545) ; in later Comedy texts fifth (Menander Comicus 462.2); sixth (Antiphanes Comicus 26.22); seventh (Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 531, “Pk.” 170, Athenio Comicus 1.5) ; once sixth in Sophocles Tragicus, καιρὸς καὶ πλοῦς ὅδ᾽ ἐπείγει γὰρ κατὰ πρύμναν “Ph.” 1451.
__B.2 inserted before the demonstrative -ί, as νυνγαρί for νυνὶ γά; compare νυνί.
__C QUANTITY: γάρ is sometimes long in Homerus Epicus for the sake of meter, θήσειν γὰρ ἔτ᾽ ἔμελλεν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.39; φωνῆς γὰρ ἤκουσα “hymnus ad Cererem” 57 .—In Attic dialect always short: Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 366, “V.” 217, “Lys.” 20 are corrupt.

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