Taal: Grieks


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an, voorvoegsel, een primair voorvoegsel;

1) heeft geen gelijk Nederlands equivalent;


Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

ἄν, conditional particle, which cannot usually be separately translated in English, its force depending on the constructions which contain it (see further, LS, s.v.; WM, §xlii; M, Pr., 165 ff.; MM, VGT 1. (i) c. indic, impf. or aor., expressing what would be or would have been if (εἰ c. impf., aor. or plpf.) some condition were or had been fulfilled: Lk 7:39 17:6, Jo 5:46, Ga 1:10, Mt 12:7 24:43, I Co 2:8, Ac 18:14, I Jo 2:19, al. The protasis is sometimes understood (as also in cl.): Mt 25:27, Lk 19:23. In hypothetical sentences, expressing unreality, ἄν (as often in late writers, more rarely in cl.) is omitted: Jo 8:39 15:24 19:11, Ro 7:7, Ga 4:15; (ii) c. opt., inf., ptcp. (cl.; v. LS, s.v.; M, Int., §275; M, Pr., 167:4). 2. (i) (a) in protasis with εἰ, in Attic contr. ἐάν, q.v.; (b) in conditional, relative, and temporal clauses (coalescing with ὅτε, ἐπεί, etc.; v.s. ὅταν, ἐπάν, etc.), ever, soever (α) c. pres., ἡνίκα, II Co 3:15; ὃς ἄν, Ro 9:15(LXX) 16:2, al.; ὅσοι ἄν, Lk 9:5; ὡς ἄν, Ro 15:24 (M, Pr., 167); (β) c. aor., ὃς ἄν, Mt 5:21, 22, 31; ἕως ἄν, until, Mt 2:13, Mk 6:10, al.; ὡς ἄν, as soon as (M, Pr., 167), I Co 11:34, Phl 2:23. On the freq. use of ἐάν for ἄν with the foregoing words, v.s. ἐάν; (ii) in late Gk., when some actual fact is spoken of, c. indic.: ὅταν (q.v.); ὅπου ἄν, Mk 6:56 (M, Pr., 168); καθότι ἄν, Ac 2:45 4:35; ὡς ἄν, I Co 12:2. 3. in iterative construction, c. impf. and aor. indic. (M, Pr., 167): Ac 2:45 4:35, I Co 12:2. 4. c. optat., giving a potential sense to a question or wish: Ac 8:31 26:29. 5. Elliptical constructions: εἰ μή τι ἄν (M, Pr., 169), I Co 7:5; ὡς ἄν, c. inf., as it were (op. cit. 167), II Co 10:9.

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

ἄν, ᾰ,
   Epic dialect, Lyric poetry, Ionic dialect, 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus , Attic dialect; also κεν) Epic dialect, Aeolic dialect, Thess., κᾱ Doric dialect, Boeotian dialect, El.; the two combined in Epic dialect (below Demosthenes Orator 11.2) and 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus , εἰκ ἄν “IG” 5(2).6.2, 15 (4th c.BC) :—modal Particle used with Verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. In Homerus Epicus κε is four times as common as ἄν, in Lyric poetry about equally common. No clear distinction can be traced, but κε as an enclitic is somewhat less emphatic; ἄν is preferred by Homerus Epicus in negative clauses, κε (ν) with the relative.
__A In Simple Sentences, and in the Apodosis of Compound Sentences; here ἄν belongs to the Verb, and denotes that the assertion made by the Verb is dependent on a condition, expressed or implied: thus ἦλθεν he came, ἦλθεν ἄν he would have come (under conditions, which may or may not be defined), and so he might have come; ἔλθοι may he come, ἔλθοι ἄν he would come (under certain conditions), and so he might come.
__A.I.1 with historical tenses, generally imperfect and aorist, less frequently pluperfect, never perfect, see below,
__A.I.1.a most frequently in apodosis of conditional sentences, with protasis implying nonfulfilment of a past or present condition, and apodosis expressing what would be or would have been the case if the condition were or had been fulfilled. The imperfect with ἄν refers to continued action, in Homerus Epicus always in past time, except perhaps καί κε θάμ᾽ ἐνθάδ᾽ ἐόντες ἐμισγόμεθ᾽ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4. 178 ; later also in present time, first in Theognis Elegiacus 905 ; πολὺ ἂν θαυμαστότερον ἦν, εἰ ἐτιμῶντο it would be far more strange if they were honoured, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 489a ; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he would not have been master of islands if he had not had also some naval power, Thucydides Historicus 1.9 . The aorist strictly refers only to past time, Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 11.24, etc. ; εἰ τότε ταύτην ἔσχε τὴν γνώμην, οὐδὲν ἂν ὧν νυνὶ πεποίηκεν ἔπραξεν if he had then come to this opinion, he would have accomplished nothing of what he has now done, Demosthenes Orator 4.5, al. , but is used idiomatically with Verbs of saying, answering, etc., as we say I should have said, εἰ μὴ πατὴρ ἦσθ᾽, εἶπον ἄν σ᾽ οὐκ εὖ φρονεῖν Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 755, compare Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 199d, “Euthphr.” 12d, etc.: the pluperfect refers to completed actions, as ὃ εἰ ἀπεκρίνω, ἱκανῶς ἂν ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ τὴν ὁσιότητα ἐμεμαθήκη I should have already learnt.., prev. work 14c; εἰ ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπέθανεν, δικαίως ἂν ἐτεθνήκει Antipho Orator 4.2.3.
__A.I.1.b the protasis is frequently understood: ὑπό κεν ταλασίφρονά περ δέος εἷλεν fear would have seized even the stout-hearted (had he heard the sound), Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.421 ; τὸ γὰρ ἔρυμα τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οὐκ ἂν ἐτειχίσαντο they would not have built the wall (if they had not won a battle), Thucydides Historicus 1.11 ; πολλοῦ γὰρ ἂν ἦν ἄξια for (if that were so) they would be worth much, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 374d ; οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὅ τι ἂν ἐποιεῖτε for there was nothing which you could have done, i. e. would have done (if you had tried), Demosthenes Orator 18.43.
__A.I.1.c with no definite protasis understood, to express what would have been likely to happen, or might have happened in past time: ἢ γάρ μιν ζωόν γε κιχήσεαι, ἤ κεν Ὀρέστης κτεῖνεν ὑποφθάμενος for either you will find him alive, or else Orestes may already have killed him before you, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.546 ; ὃ θεασάμενος πᾶς ἄν τις ἀνὴρ ἠράσθη δάϊος εἶναι every man who saw this (the 'Seven against Thebes') would have longed to be a warrior, Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1022 ; especially with τάχα, which see, ἀλλ᾽ ἦλθε μὲν δὴ τοῦτο τοὔνειδος τάχ᾽ ἂν ὀργῇ βιασθὲν μᾶλλον ἢ γνώμῃ φρενῶν, i. e. it might perhaps have come, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 523 ; τάχα ἂν δὲ καὶ ἄλλως πως ἐσπλεύσαντες (i.e. διέβησαν) and they might also perhaps have crossed by sea (to Sicily) in some other way, Thucydides Historicus 6.2, compare Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 265b.
__A.I.1.d ἄν is frequently omitted in apodosi with Verbs expressing obligation, propriety, or possibility, as ἔδει, ἐχρῆν, εἰκὸς ἦν, etc., and sometimes for rhetorical effect, εἰ μὴ.. ᾖσμεν, φόβον παρέσχεν it had caused (for it would have caused) fear, Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 1113. This use becomes more common in later Gk.
__A.I.2 with future indicative:
__A.I.2.a frequently in Epic dialect, usually with κεν, rarely ἄν, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.167, 22.66, indicating a limitation or condition, ὁ δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι and he will likely be angry to whom-soever I shall come, prev. work 1.139 ; καί κέ τις ὧδ᾽ ἐρέει and in that case men will say, 4.176; ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι καταλέξω Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.80 ; so in Lyric poetry, μαθὼν δέ τις ἂν ἐρεῖ Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 7.68, compare “I.” 6(5).59.
__A.I.2.b rarely in codices of Attic dialect Prose writers, σαφὲς ἂν καταστήσετε Thucydides Historicus 1.140; οὐχ ἥκει, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἥξει δεῦρο Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 615d, compare “Ap.” 29c, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.5.13; uncertain in Hippocrates Medicus “γυναικεῖα” 2.174: in later Prose, Philostratus Sophista “V A” 2.21, S Euripides Tragicus “M.” 9.225: also in Poetry, Euripides Tragicus “Electra” 484, Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 1313; οὐκ ἂν προδώσω Herodas Mimographus 6.36 (correlated -δοίην):— for ἄν with future infinitive and participle see below
__A.II WITH SUBJUNCTIVE, only in Epic dialect, the meaning being the same as with the future indicative (1.2a), frequently with 1sg., as εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώῃσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι in that case I will take her myself, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.324 ; πείθευ, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι εἰδέω χάριν obey and if so I will be grateful, 14.235 (the subj. is always introduced by δέ in this usage) ; also with other persons, giving emphasis to the future, οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίσμῃ κίθαρις 3.54, al.
__A.III WITH OPTATIVE (never future, rarely perfect πῶς ἂν λελήθοι με; Xenophon Historicus “Symposium” 3.6):
__A.III.a in apodosis of conditional sentences, after protasis in optative with εἰ or some other conditional or relative word, expressing a future condition: ἀλλ᾽ εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.28; οὐ πολλὴ ἂν ἀλογία εἴη, εἰ φοβοῖτο τὸν θάνατο; Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 68b:—in Homerus Epicus present and aorist optative with κε or ἄν are sometimes used like imperfect and aorist indicative with ἄν in Attic, with either regular indicative or another optative in the protasis: καί νύ κεν ἔνθ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο.. εἰ μὴ.. νόησε κτλ., i. e. he would have perished, had she not perceived, etc., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.311, compare 5.388, 17.70 ; εἰ νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, ἦ τ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ.. κλισίηνδε φεροίμην if we were now contending in another's honour, I should now carry.., prev. work 23.274: so rarely in Trag., οὐδ᾽ ἂν σὺ φαίης, εἴ σε μὴ κνίζοι λέχος (for εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε) Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 568.
__A.III.b with protasis in present or future, the optative with ἄν in apodosi takes a simply future sense: φρούριον δ᾽ εἰ ποιήσονται, τῆς μὲν γῆς βλάπτοιεν ἄν τι μέρος they might perhaps damage, Thucydides Historicus 1.142, compare 2.60, Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 25b, “R.” 333e; ἢν οὖν μάθῃς.. οὐκ ἂν ἀποδοίην Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 116, compare Demosthenes Orator 1.26, al.
__A.III.c with protasis understood: φεύγωμεν· ἔτι γάρ κεν ἀλύξαιμεν κακὸν ἦμαρ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 10.269 ; οὔτε ἐσθίουσι πλείω ἢ δύνανται φέρειν· διαρραγεῖεν γὰρ ἄν for (if they should do so) they would burst, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.2.21 ; τὸν δ᾽ οὔ κε δύ᾽ ἀνέρε.. ἀπ᾽ οὔδεος ὀχλίσσειαν two men could not heave the stone from the ground, i. e. would not, if they should try, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 12.447; οὐδ᾽ ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τι Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 240, compare Demosthenes Orator 2.8: in Homerus Epicus sometimes with reference to past time, Τυδεΐδην οὐκ ἂν γνοίης ποτέροισι μετείη Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.85.
__A.III.d with no definite protasis implied, in potential sense: ἡδέως δ᾽ ἂν ἐροίμην Λεπτίνην but I would gladly ask Leptines, Demosthenes Orator 20.129 ; βουλοίμην ἄν I should like, Latin velim (but ἐβουλόμην ἄν I should wish, if it were of any avail, vellem); ποῖ οὖν τραποίμεθ᾽ ἄ; which way then can we turn? Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 290a ; οὐκ ἂν μεθείμην τοῦ θρόνου I will not give up the throne, Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 830 ; idiomatically, referring to the past, αὗται δὲ οὐκ ἂν πολλαὶ εἶεν but these would not (on investigation) prove to be many, Thucydides Historicus 1.9 ; εἴησαν δ᾽ ἂν οὗτοι Κρῆτες these would be (i. e. would have been) Cretans, Herodotus Historicus 1.2: used in order to soften assertions by giving them a less positive form, as οὐκ ἂν οὖν πάνυ γέ τι σπουδαῖον εἴη ἡ δικαιοσύνη, i.e. it would not prove to be, etc. (for, it is not, etc.), Plato Philosophus “R.” 333e.
__A.III.e in questions, expressing a wish: τίς ἂν θεῶν.. δοί; Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1100, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1448; πῶς ἂν θάνοιμ; Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 389: hence (with no question) as a mild command, exhortation, or entreaty, τλαίης κεν Μενελάῳ ἐπιπροέμεν ταχὺν ἰόν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.94 ; σὺ μὲν κομίζοις ἂν σεαυτὸν ᾗ θέλεις you may take yourself off (milder than κόμιζε σεαυτόν), Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 444 ; χωροῖς ἂν εἴσω you may go in, “El.” 1491; κλύοις ἂν ἤδη, Φοῖβε hear me now, Phoebus, prev. work 637 ; φράζοις ἄν, λέγοις ἄν, Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 23c, 48b.
__A.III.f in a protasis which is also an apodosis: εἴπερ ἄλλῳ τῳ ἀνθρώπων πειθοίμην ἄν, καὶ σοὶ πείθομαι if I would trust any (other) man (if he gave me his word), I trust you, prev. author “Prt.” 329b ; εἰ μὴ ποιήσαιτ᾽ ἂν τοῦτο if you would not do this (if you could), Demosthenes Orator 4.18, compare Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.5.3, Plotinus Philosophus 6.4.16.
__A.III.g rarely omitted with optative in apodosis: ῥεῖα θεός γ᾽ ἐθέλων καὶ τηλόθεν ἄνδρα σαώσαι Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.231, compare 14.123, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.303 ; also in Trag., θᾶσσον ἢ λέγοι τις Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 1186; τεὰν δύνασιν τίς.. κατάσχο; Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 605.
__A.III.h ἄν with future optative is probably always corrupt (compare 1.2b), as τὸν αὐτὸν ἂν ἐπαινέσοι (ἐπαινέσαι Bekk.) Plato Philosophus “Leges” 719e ; εἰδὼς ὅτι οὐδέν᾽ ἂν καταλήψοιτο (οὐδένα Bekk.) Lysias Orator 1.22.
__A.IV WITH infinitive and participle (sometimes adjective equivalent to participle, τῶν δυνατῶν ἂν κρῖναι Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 577b) representing ind. or opt.:
__A.IV.1 present infinitive or participle:
__A.IV.1.a representing imperfect indicative, οἴεσθε τὸν πατέρα.. οὐκ ἂν φυλάττει; do you think he would not have kept them safe? (οὐκ ἂν ἐφύλαττεν), Demosthenes Orator 49.35 ; ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων ὑμῶν ἐπιβοηθεῖν when you would have been unable, Thucydides Historicus 1.73, compare 4.40.
__A.IV.1.b representing present optative, πόλλ᾽ ἂν ἔχων (representing ἔχοιμ᾽ ἄν) ἕτερ᾽ εἰπεῖν παραλείπω Demosthenes Orator 18.258, compare Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.3.18: with Art., τὸ ἐθέλειν ἂν ἰέναι ἄκλητος ἐπὶ δεῖπνον Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 174b.
__A.IV.2 aorist infinitive or participle:
__A.IV.2.a representing aorist indicative, οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ᾽ αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖ; do you not think he would even have run thither? (καὶ ἐπέδραμεν ἄν), Demosthenes Orator 27.56 ; ἴσμεν ὑμᾶς ἀναγκασθέντας ἄν we know you would have been compelled, Thucydides Historicus 1.76, compare 3.89 ; ῥᾳδίως ἂν ἀφεθείς when he might easily have been acquitted, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.4.4.
__A.IV.2.b representing aorist optative, οὐδ᾽ ἂν κρατῆσαι αὐτοὺς τῆς γῆς ἡγοῦμαι I think they would not even be masters of the land (οὐδ᾽ ἂν κρατήσειαν), Thucydides Historicus 6.37, compare 2.20 ; ὁρῶν ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτὸ ληφθέν (ληφθείη ἄν) prev. author 7.42 ; οὔτε ὄντα οὔτε ἂν γενόμενα, i.e. things which are not and never could happen (ἃ οὔτε ἂν γένοιτο), prev. author 6.38.
__A.IV.3 perfect infinitive or participle representing:
__A.IV.3.a pluperfect indicative, πάντα ταῦθ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἑαλωκέναι (φήσειεν ἄν) he would say that all these would have been destroyed by the barbarians (ἑαλώκη ἄν), Demosthenes Orator 19.312.
__A.IV.3.b perfect optative, οὐκ ἂν ἡγοῦμαι αὐτοὺς δίκην ἀξίαν δεδωκέναι, εἰ.. καταψηφίσαισθε I do not believe they would (then) have suffered (δεδωκότες ἂν εἶεν) punishment enough, etc., Lysias Orator 27.9.
__A.IV.4 future infinitive or participle, never in Epic dialect, and probably always corrupt in Attic dialect, νομίζων μέγιστον ἂν σφᾶς ὠφελήσειν (to be read -ῆσαι) Thucydides Historicus 5.82, compare 6.66, 8.25, 71 ; participle is still more exceptional, ὡς ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοντος ἄλλα Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 30c (codices), compare Demosthenes Orator 19.342 (variant) ; both are found in later Gk., νομίσαντες ἂν οἰκήσειν οὕτως ἄριστα Polybius Historicus 8.30.8, compare Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Marcellus” 15, Arrianus Historicus “Anabasis” 2.2.3 ; with participle, Epicurus Philosophus “De rerum natura - Wien. Stud.” 14.1, Lucianus Sophista “Asin.” 26, Libanius Sophista “Orationes” 62.21, uncertain reading in Arrianus Historicus “Anabasis” 6.6.5.
__B IN DEPENDENT CLAUSE Sophocles Tragicus
__B.I In the protasis of conditional sentences with εἰ, regularly with the subjunctive. In Attic εἰ ἄν is contracted into ἐάν, ἤν, or ἄν (ᾱ) (which see): Homerus Epicus has generally εἴ κε (or αἴ κε), sometimes ἤν, once εἰ δ᾽ ἄν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.288, twice εἴπερ ἄν 5.224, 232. The protasis expresses either future condition (with apodosis of fut. time) or general condition (with apodosis of repeated action): εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἔρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ᾽ ὅς.. if thus thou shalt do.., prev. work 2.364 ; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death (ever) come near.., Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 671.
__B.I.2 in relative or temporal clauses with a conditional force; here ἄν coalesces with ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, compare ὅταν, ὁπόταν, ἐπήν or ἐπάν (Ionic dialect ἐπεάν), ἐπειδάν: Homerus Epicus has ὅτε κε (sometimes ὅτ᾽ ἄν), ὁππότε κε (sometimes ὁπότ᾽ ἄν or ὁππότ᾽ ἄν), ἐπεί κε (ἐπεὶ ἄν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.412) , ἐπήν, εὖτ᾽ ἄ; see also εἰσόκε (εἰς ὅ κε):—τάων ἥν κ᾽ ἐθέλωμι φίλην ποιήσομ᾽ ἄκοιτιν whomsoever of these I may wish.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.397 ; ὅταν δὴ μὴ σθένω, πεπαύσομαι when I shall have no strength.., Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 91 ; ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος.. ὅς χ᾽ ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ whoever conceals one thing in his mind and speaks another, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.312, compare Demosthenes Orator 4.6, Thucydides Historicus 1.21. — Homerus Epicus uses subjunctive in both the above constructions (1 and 2) without ἄ; also Trag. and Comedy texts, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 496, Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 805 ; μέχρι and πρίν occasionally take subjunctive without ἄν in prose, e.g. Thucydides Historicus 1.137, 4.16 (μέχρι οὗ), Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 62c, Aeschines Orator 3.60.
__B.I.3 in final clauses introduced by relative adverbs, as ὡς, ὅπως (of Manner), ἵνα (of Place), ὄφρα, ἕως, etc. (of Time), frequently in Epic dialect, σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.32; ὄφρα κεν εὕδῃ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.359; ὅπως ἂν εἰδῇ.. φράσω Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 824; ὅπως ἂν φαίνηται κάλλιστος Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 198e; μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃ “Grg.” 481a (where ὅπως with fut. ind. is the regular constr.) ; also after ὡς in Herodotus Historicus, Trag., Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.5.16, al., once in Thucydides Historicus 6.91 (but fut. indicative is regular in Attic.); ἵνα final does not take ἄν or κε except ἵνα εἰδότες ἤ κε θάνωμεν ἤ κεν.. φύγοιμεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 12.156 (ἵνα = where in Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 405). μή, = lest, takes ἄν only with optative in apodosis, as Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 631, Thucydides Historicus 2.93.
__B.II in Epic dialect sometimes with OPTATIVE as with subjunctive (always κε (ν), except εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.597), εἴ κεν Ἄρης οἴχοιτο Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.353 ; ὥς κε.. δοίη ᾧ κ᾽ ἐθέλοι that he might give her to whomsoever he might please, prev. work 2.54: so in Herodotus Historicus in final clauses, 1.75, 99:—in Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 23.135 ὥς κέν τις φαίη, κέν belongs to Verb in apodosis, as in ὡς δ᾽ ἂν ἥδιστα ταῦτα φαίνοιτο Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 7.5.81.
__B.II.2 rarely in oratio obliqua, where a relative or temporary word retains an ἄν which it would have with subjunctive in direct form, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 687, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.6, Isocrates Orator 17.15; ἐπειδὰν δοκιμασθείην Demosthenes Orator 30.6 :—similarly after a preceding optative, οὐκ ἀποκρίναιο ἕως ἂν.. σκέψαιο Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 101d.
__B.III rarely with εἰ and INDICATIVE in protasis, only in Epic dialect:
__B.III.1 with future indicative as with subjunctive: αἴ κεν Ἰλίου πεφιδήσεται Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 15.213:—so with relat., οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι 1.175.
__B.III.2 with εἰ and a past tense of indicative, once in Homerus Epicus, εἰ δέ κ᾽ ἔτι προτέρω γένετο δρόμος Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.526 ; so Ζεὺς γάρ κ᾽ ἔθηκε νῆσον εἴ κ᾽ ἐβούλετο Oracle texts cited in Herodotus Historicus 1.174, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Lysistrata” 1099 (codex R), Apollonius Rhodius Epicus 1.197.
__B.IV in later Greek, ἄν with relative words is used with INDICATIVE in all tenses, as ὅπου ἂν εἰσεπορεύετο NT.Mark.6.56; ὅσ᾽ ἂν πάσχετε “PFay.” 136 (4th c.AD); ἔνθ᾽ ἂν πέφυκεν ἡ ὁλότης εἶναι Philoponus, Joannes Philosophus “in Aristotelis Physica commentaria - Comm. in Arist. Graeca” 436.19 ; compare ἐάν, ὅταν.
__C with imperfect and more rarely aorist indicative in ITERATIVE construction, to express elliptically a condilion fulfilled whenever an opportumty offered; frequently in Herodotus Historicus (not in Pindarus Lyricus or Aeschylus Tragicus), κλαίεσκε ἂν καὶ ὀδυρέσκετο she would (i. e. used to) weep and lament, 3.119; εἶτα πῦρ ἂν οὐ παρῆν Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 295 ; εἴ τινες ἴδοιεν.., ἀνεθάρσησαν ἄν whenever they saw it, on each occasion, Thucydides Historicus 7.71; διηρώτων ἂν αὐτοὺς τί λέγοιεν Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 22b: infinitive representing imperfect of this construction, ἀκούω Λακεδαιμονίους τότε ἐμβαλόντας ἂν.. ἀναχωρεῖν, i. e. I hear they used to retire (ἀνεχώρουν ἄν), Demosthenes Orator 9.48.
__D.I.1 in A, when ἄν does not coalesce with the relative word (as in ἐάν, ὅταν), it follows directly or is separated only by other particles, as μέν, δέ, τε, γάρ, καί, νυ, περ,, etc.; as εἰ μέν κεν.. εἰ δέ κε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.281- 4 ; rarely by τις, as ὅποι τις ἄν, οἶμαι, προσθῇ Demosthenes Orator 2.14:—in Homerus Epicus and Hesiodus Epicus two such Particles may precede κε, as εἴ περ γάρ κεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.355, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.123 ; εἰ γάρ τίς κε, ὃς μὲν γάρ κε, Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 280, 357 ; rarely in Prose, ὅποι μὲν γὰρ ἄν Demosthenes Orator 4.45; ὁπότερος οὖν ἄν Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1420: also ὁπόσῳ πλέον ἄν Plato Philosophus “Leges” 647e, compare 850a; ὅπου τὸ πάλαι λεγόμενον ἂν γίγνηται 739c.
__D.I.2 in apodosis, ἄν may stand either next to its Verb (before or after it), or after some other emphatic word, especially an interrogative, a negative (e. g. οὐδ᾽ ἂν εἷς, οὐκ ἂν ἔτι, etc.), or an important Adjective or Adverb; also after a participle which represents the protasis, λέγοντος ἄν τινος πιστεῦσαι οἴεσθ; do you think they would have believed it if any one had told them? (εἴ τις ἔλεγεν, ἐπίστευσαν ἄν), Demosthenes Orator 6.20.
__D.I.3 ἄν is frequently separated from its infinitive by such Verbs as οἴομαι, δοκέω, φημί, οἶδα, etc., οὐκ ἂν οἴει..; frequently in Plato Philosophus, “Grg.” 486d, al. ; καὶ νῦν ἡδέως ἄν μοι δοκῶ κοινωνῆσαι I think that I should, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.7.25; οὕτω γὰρ ἄν μοι δοκεῖ ἥ τε πόλις ἄριστα διοικεῖσθαι Aeschines Orator 3.2 ; ἃ μήτε προῄδει μηδεὶς μήτ᾽ ἂν ᾠήθη τήμερον ῥηθῆναι (where ἄν belongs to ῥηθῆναι) Demosthenes Orator 18.225:—in the phrase οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ἂν εἰ, or οὐκ ἂν οἶδ᾽ εἰ, ἄν belongs not to οἶδα, but to the Verb which follows, οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ἂν εἰ πείσαιμι, for οὐκ οἶδα εἰ πείσαιμι ἄν, Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 941, cf. Alcaeus48; οὐκ ἂν οἶδ᾽ εἰ δυναίμην Plato Philosophus “Timaeus” 26b; οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ἂν εἰ ἐκτησάμην Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 5.4.12.
__D.I.4 ἄν never begins a sentence, or even a clause after a comma, but may stand first after a parenthetic clause, ἀλλ᾽, ὦ μέλ᾽, ἄν μοι σιτίων διπλῶν ἔδει Aristophanes Comicus “Pax” 137.
__D.II REPETITION OF ἄν:—in apodosis ἄν may be used twice or even three times with the same Verb, either to make the condition felt throughout a long sentence, or to emphasize certain words, ὥστ᾽ ἄν, εἰ σθένος λάβοιμι, δηλώσαιμ᾽ ἄν Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 333, compare “Ant.” 69, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 340, Thucydides Historicus 1.76 (near the end), 2.41, Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 31a, Lysias Orator 20.15; ἀφανεῖς ἂν ὄντες οὐκ ἂν ὑμνήθημεν ἄν Euripides Tragicus “Troades” 1244, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 739 ; attached to a parenthetical phrase, ἔδρασ᾽ ἄν, εὖ τοῦτ᾽ ἴσθ᾽ ἄν, εἰ.. prev. author “OT” 1438.
__D.II.2 ἄν is coupled with κε (ν) a few times in Homerus Epicus, as Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.187, 202, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.361, al.; compare ἤν περ γάρ κ᾽ ἐθέλωσιν variant prev. work 18.318.
__D.III ELLIPSIS OF VERB:—sometimes the Verb to which ἄν belongs must be supplied, in Homerus Epicus only εἰμί, as τάτ᾽ ἔλδεται ὅς κ᾽ ἐπιδευής (i.e. ᾖ) Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.481 ; ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν πρὸ τοῦ (i.e. ἔρρεγκον) Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 5 ; τί δ᾽ ἂν δοκεῖ σοι Πρίαμος (i.e. πρᾶξαι), εἰ τάδ᾽ ἤνυσε; Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 935: —so in phrases like{πῶς γὰρ ἄν}; and πῶς οὐκ ἄν (i.e. εἴη); also in ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (or ὡσπερανεί), as φοβούμενος ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ παῖς (i. e. ὥσπερ ἂν ἐφοβήθη εἰ παῖς ἦν) Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 479a ; so τοσοῦτον ἐφρόνησαν, ὅσον περ ἂν (i.e. ἐφρόνησαν) εἰ.. Isocrates Orator 10.48:—so also when κἂν εἰ (={καὶ ἂν εἰ}) has either no Verb in the apodosis or one to which ἄν cannot belong, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 477a, “Men.” 72c ; compare κἄν:—so the Verb of a protasis containing ἄν may be understood, ὅποι τις ἂν προσθῇ, κἂν μικρὰν δύναμιν (i. e. καὶ ἐὰν προσθῇ) Demosthenes Orator 2.14 ; ὡς ἐμοῦ οὖν ἰόντος ὅπῃ ἂν καὶ ὑμεῖς (i.e. ἴητε) Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.3.6.
__D.IV ELLIPSIS OF ἄν:—when an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate clauses, ἄν is generally used only in the first and understood in the others: πείθοι᾽ ἂν εἰ πείθοι᾽· ἀπειθοίης δ᾽ ἴσως Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1049 : even when the construction is continued in a new sentence, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 352e, compare 439b codices: but ἄν is repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis, prev. work 398a, compare Demosthenes Orator 19.156 (where an opt. is implied with the third ὡς): rarely expressed with the second of two co-ordinate Verbs and understood with the first, τοῦτον ἂν.. θαρσοίην ἐγὼ καλῶς μὲν ἄρχειν, εὖ δ᾽ ἂν ἄρχεσθαι θέλειν (i. e. καλῶς μὲν ἂν ἄρχοι, εὖ δ᾽ ἂν θέλοι ἄρχεσθαι) Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 669.
__B ἄν, ᾱ, Attic dialect, ={ἐάν},{ἤν}, Thucydides Historicus 4.46 codices, al.; frequently in Plato Philosophus, ἂν σωφρονῇ “Phd.” 61b ; ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ prev. work 80d, compare Demosthenes Orator 4.50; ἄν τ᾽.. ἄν τε Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 48.4 : not common in earlier Attic dialect Inscrr., “IG” 1.2a5, 2.179b49, al.: but frequently later, “SIG” 1044.27 (4th-3rd c.BC), “PPetr.” 2p.47 (3rd c.BC), “PPar.” 32.19 (2nd c.BC), “PTeb.” 110.8 (1st c.BC), NT.John.20.23, etc.
__C ἄν or ἀν, Epic form of ἀνά, (which see)
__D ἄν, shortened from ἄνα, see entry ἀνά G.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ἐάν G1437 "indien, in geval van"; Grieks ὁσάκις G3740 "zo vaak als, hoe vaak ook maar"; Grieks ὅταν G3752 "wanneer eventueel, telkens wanneer";



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